Where there are fewer women or minorities than would be reasonably expected, the employer has to establish goals. Numerical goals do not create guarantees for specific groups or preferences, nor are they designed to achieve proportional representation or equal results. No requirement exists that any specific position be filled by a person of a particular race, gender or ethnicity. By casting a wider net and recruiting a diverse pool of qualified individuals, an affirmative action employer eliminates preferences and levels the playing field for all.
Neither the costs nor the benefits are entirely obvious Megan McArdle They remanded the case back to the lower court, saying that affirmative action programs have to pass strict scrutiny, and neither the University of Texas nor the court had really tried applying strict scrutiny.
So let me talk instead about what affirmative action means for America, and the Americans who live there. The evidence seems to show that if completely race-neutral admissions policies were adopted at colleges and universities, the admissions rates for blacks and hispanic would fall dramatically.
The primary beneficiaries would be Asian students, who would fill nearly four out of five of the extra admissions slots.
One of the oddest facts about college admissions is that everyone seems to be aware that colleges have imposed restrictive admissions quotas to keep Asians underrepresented in their student bodies, akin to the "Jewish quotas" which used to exist at Ivy League schools until the s.
But no one seems particularly bothered about systemic, institutionalized racial discrimination against a large group of Americans. That tells us who affirmative action hurts.
But who does it help? There are effectively two schools of thought on this. The first is ably outlined by William Bowen and Derek Bok in The Shape of the Riverarguing that affirmative action makes a substantial difference in how many minorities are admitted to college, and that those minorities gain substantial opportunities from that admission, not just in terms of academic learning, but from networking, credentials, and general social capital acquisition associated with college attendance.
The best argument against affirmative action is presented in Mismatchby Richard Sander and Stuart Taylor. The subtitle says it all: Their argument goes something like this: Racial preferences are used to pull the representation towards but not up to the population share of these two groups.
There are other preferences for pacific islanders and Native Americans, but the small size of these populations makes these preferences fairly uncontroversial, and also, hard to study. On this much, basically everyone is agreed.
But where Derek Bok and William Bowen see an advantage for the minority students who receive admissions preferences, Sander and Taylor argue that affirmative action actually places those students at a disadvantage.
They are less prepared for their classwork than white and Asian students, and are thus disproportionately likely to drop out, switch to an easier major from engineering to English, sayor flunk the professional certifications required to use their degree.
In fact, the research underlying the book began when Sanders who teaches at UCLA law school began looking into the performance of his minority students on graduation and bar passage. Minority students were highly overrepresented in the bottom ten percent of the class, which has only a one in four chance of passing the bar.
Okay, but would they really have been better off not getting into law school at all? Most of those kids are graduating with six figure debt, and a degree that is perfectly useless if you cannot pass the bar exam.
The classes will be taught too fast for you, glossing over concepts that you may not have encountered before. In sixth grade, my parents moved me from PS which was, at the time, one of the best public primary schools in Manhattan--to a private school.
They now have special schools where they send disruptive students, but at the time, in New York City, the de facto policy was no more than a day suspension, no matter what the offense.
The boys would disrupt the class for a few days, get suspended for a few days, and then the cycle would start over. My class lost considerable time.
I was ahead in reading, but very far behind in everything else. It was only looking back over a few decades that I realized that all my classmates had much more preparation to handle the coursework than I did--including preparation on how to work hard.
I was used to sailing through my classes with absolutely no effort. I can even see why the differentials might persist into graduate school. They suggest that preferences increase graduation rates, particularly at very elite schools?This remedial justification of affirmative action recognizes that wrongs have been committed in the past and acknowledges a moral obligation to set things right” (Affirmative Action – Pros and Cons, The Origins Of, Legal Treatment Of, Political and Social Debates, The Future, Pros and Cons section, para.
1). Affirmative Action Essay, Research Paper Few societal policy issues have served as a better gage of racial and cultural divisions among the American people than affirmatory action.
Affirmative action is a term mentioning to Torahs and societal policies intended to relieve favoritism that limits chances for a assortment of groups in assorted societal establishments. Affirmative action policy can be a highly charged issue in contemporary society. The sample research paper, written by a Ultius writer, discusses the role of affirmative action for disabled veterans compared to other special needs groups..
Introduction to affirmative action. In an effort to help employers stay Affirmative Action compliant (as well positively enhance their workforce and advance their companies), HR Unlimited, Inc.
has compiled a list of hiring links that provide access to women/minority applicants nationwide. Affirmative action creates an equal opportunity for people in the work force and for students seeking higher caninariojana.comr, while affirmative action creates equal opportunity to for some individuals, it discriminates against others, primarily white caninariojana.com for example some police caninariojana.com a member of a minority group is hired over a more qualified person and they are forced to be in a situation they .
Affirmative action was orginally designed to help minorities, but women-especially white women-have made the greatest gains as a result of these programs"(Gross, ). Affirmative action is a growing argument among our society.