Early relationship[ edit ] Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were not always allies. While Mussolini wanted the expansion of fascist ideology throughout the world, he did not initially appreciate Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Under the postwar settlement, Italy received some former Austrian territory along the northeast frontier. The Great War, which lasted more than three years and cost more thanlives, led the country to victory and to the achievement of unity, but also to a serious crisis that affected all aspects of national life.
The period between and was one of severe political, economic and social instability, which facilitated the rise to power of the Fascist party of Benito Mussolini, who became head of government after his March on Rome in October From that moment on, the democratic life of the State progressively diminished as the dictatorial regime of Mussolini settled in.
Over the next few years, Mussolini eliminated political parties, curtailed personal liberties, and installed a fascist dictatorship termed the Corporate State.
The king, with little or no effective power, remained titular head of state. This general party disintegration was nothing new in Italian political life. For decades Signor Giolitti had manoeuvred to prevent the formation of clearly defined parties, finding the bickering factions of Parliament, all of which were invariably permeated with his adherents, far easier to manipulate.
Though this is characteristic of Latin polities, it has led to a peculiarly vicious state of affairs for in times of crisis any small but active group is enabled to exercise a power quite disproportionate to its actual numerical strength.
The lack of consistent party control accounted for much of the governmental impotence in the fact of Socialist, Communist and Fascisti violence.
But the simplest things in Italian national life had always been attained only by the most frenzied waste of emotional energy. Progress was always measured by the reactions to such emotional debauches. Out of the general turbulence of Italian life emerge certain deeper tendencies. The reaction to war was revolution; the reaction to revolution, Fascisti violence; the reaction to Fascisti violence, a widespread desire for an ordered State.
The majority sentiment of the country clamored for internal peace, bureaucratic reform, rigid economy, and sound, heroic reconstruction. Mussolini was an interesting and volatile character, constantly running before his horse to market.
For many years he was editor of The Avanti. At the time of the Crispi Government, which vigorously suppressed radical organizations, he fled with Serrati, Matteoti and other extremists to Switzerland.
He has resigned on several occasions from the head of the Fascisti, and his latest exploit is the fighting of a duel with one of the leading newspaper editors of Rome. Over time, Mussolini gained the support of the police, often through bribes, and also had economic backing from large landowners.
Bythe power of the left had been broken; bymany regional police officers were taking orders from the fascist high command. In addition, the police were poorly treated by the government in the postwar period, and they had no particular reason to be loyal to the liberal parliamentary system.
Further, the police learned that they could not depend on their leaders for backing when they executed unpopular orders. Both Italian fascism and German Nazism used right-wing methods to achieve their goals.
InMussolini defined the vision of the fascist State "as an absolute, in comparison with which all individuals or groups are relative, only to be conceived of in their relation to the State" Mussolini, What is Fascism? Each movement also regarded both war and expansion as vital to the "sustenance of [its] people.Although Adolf Hitler’s Nazi revolution was modeled after the rise of Mussolini and the Italian Fascist Party, Fascist Italy and Il Duce Sign up now to learn about This Day in History.
Outside Europe, popular support for fascism was greatest in South Africa and the Middle East. In Italy, the Fascist Party was never the single most important element in the regime, and its influence was often secondary.
history. Italy. In Italy: The Fascist era; Blackshirts. In Blackshirt; Bosnia and Herzegovina. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Fascist Italy Introduction World War II was, no doubt, a ruthless war that lasted from to and extended across Europe, Eastern Asia, and the South Pacific Ocean.
Introduction: the origins of American hegemony in Europe The United States and the rise of fascism in Italy United States economic policy toward Italy The United States and Italy confront the Great Depression Roosevelt and fascist Italy, from the London Economic Conference to the Italo-Ethiopian War () --Conclusion.
A Concise History of Italy (Cambridge Concise Histories) Francesco Crispi: From Nation to Nationalism (), The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy since () and Fascist Voices: An Intimate History of Mussolini's Italy (). All his books have been translated into Italian.
This is a very readable introduction to the history /5(6). Italy was on the verge of social revolution. Fascism was a response to this, a tool by the ruling class to crush working class organisation, resistance and power.
It was, to use Luigi Fabbri's.