SUMMARY On November 18,Zambians voted in parliamentary and presidential elections-the second multiparty elections since the end in of twenty-seven years of authoritarian and mostly single-party rule, under former president Kenneth Kaunda.
Introduction Zambia faces many challenges in attempting to improve its electoral system so that the system becomes and is seen to be fair and efficient. The purpose of this article is not to discuss these challenges but to contribute on the currently raging debate on the need for Zambia to have a Parliament that is representative of the votes cast and a President who is elected by the majority of voters to ensure that there is legitimacy be in leadership.
Parliamentary Elections In the Zambian Electoral system, the country is divided into single-member constituencies.
Representatives are elected to Parliament by the first-part- the post FPTP single majority method which awards seats inn the National Assembly to the candidates with largest number of votes in each constituency. Under this system, the strongest party in the National Assembly may have an absolute majority of seats with less than an absolute majority of votes cast.
This has been true in Zambia since where the combined votes of opposition parties were more than those of the ruling MMD. However, considered on its own, the MMD in all the past three general elections had both absolute majorities in terms of votes cast as well as seats awarded when compared to other individual parties.
In the general elections for instance, using presidential votes cast, a total of 1, votes were cast and the MMD candidate Rupiah Banda obtained Generally, the current Electoral system favors parties whose support is concentrated ethnically geographically and tends to discriminate against parties with support spread across the constituencies.
The Heritage party was neither here nor there as they were largely considered as spoilers.
An example of how the Proportional Representative system works may suffice to explain this voting approach. Presently, Zambia constitutes constituencies for which members to Parliament are elected.
Introduction The goal of this health care system development proposal is to address the needs of the people as the country undergoes development in partnership with Chinese business entities, while ensuring public health for the constituents. This proposal details the health care system improvement plan created by the People’s Health. As witnessed during the recent global economic crisis, new investments in form of equity were postponed or cancelled while, retained earnings sharply declined . Nshindano warned that Zambia risked plunging into a serious economic crisis if the current debt was not well managed. And Nshindano advised against introduction of new taxes. “With regards to promoting local investment, we note that interest rates remain high at % as at March This is a marginal improvement from % in December.
In the presidential elections, there were seven 7 parties that contested. The total presidential votes cast which were closely related to parliamentary votes cast were 2, If this figure was divided by seats, a seat in Parliament would be awarded to a party with 18, votes.
In this case, the MMD should have been given 64 seats instead of UPND should have been given 38 seats instead of Similarly in the elections using presidential elections result, the total votes cast were 1, which could have meant 11, votes per constituencies.
Advantages of Proportional Representation The country has been advised to adopt a form of Proportional Representation electoral method for the following reasons. Political parties will gain representation in Parliament in proportion to their share of votes cast.
In real terms, there will be one entity Zambia. Voters will cast votes for parties who in turn will allocate from their lists designated representative per constituency won.
On account of thiscostly bye-elections will also be done with as parties will simply replace candidates from their lists whenever a vacancy occurred. More parties are likely to gain representation as this electoral method will stimulate voters to take part in elections which will lead to higher voter turnouts.
In the presidential elections, the Heritage Party should have been awarded at least 2 seats and that of APC at least one seat. For argument sake, this could have enabled Gen.
Godfrey Miyanda and Mr. The Proportional Representational system will strengthen political parties as organizations and enhance their role in the Zambia political process 5. Because of this change, all subsequent victories by Presidential candidates have been on a basis of minority votes. In the elections, President Mwanawasa again won by Limited-Time Match Every dollar you give will be matched to protect all that nature gives us.
The global economic crisis has adversely impacted on confidence in debt markets, many countries including Zimbabwe in particular is as a result also experiencing difficulties in accessing and obtaining private financing which is exacerbated by economic restrictions imposed on the country by the US and its allies in to date.
While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study.
Economy of Zambia Jump to navigation this halved in value on the world market in By Zambia had a balance-of-payments crisis, and rapidly became massively indebted to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). mechanism.
To continue to do so, however, would jeopardize Zambia's debt relief. Zambia qualified for HIPC debt relief in. In the United States, government debt refers to federal debt held by individuals, corporations, state or local governments, foreign governments, and other entities outside of the United States Government less Federal Financing Bank securities.
economic crisis in Africa, my focus is primarily on the debt problem. In my opinion the African debt problem is the biggest hindrance to any possible solutions to the overall economic crisis.