Session 32 - Time to Mutate: Cedar Ballroom, Second Floor Category: As clinical trials continue to move toward the use of ePRO, wearable technology, and biosensors for data collection, data volume and data velocity will likely render non-algorithm based approaches to data cleaning and error identification obsolete.
The word "data" was first used to mean "transmissible and storable computer information" in The expression "data processing" was first used in However, in non-specialist, everyday writing, "data" is most commonly used in the singular, Data and information management a mass noun like "information", "sand" or "rain".
According to a common view, data is collected and analyzed; data only becomes information suitable for making decisions once it has been analyzed in some fashion.
For example, the height of Mount Everest is generally considered data. The height can be measured precisely with an altimeter and entered into a database. This data may be included in a book along with other data on Mount Everest to describe the mountain in a manner useful for those who wish to make a decision about the best method to climb it.
An understanding based on experience climbing mountains that could advise persons on the way to reach Mount Everest's peak may be seen as "knowledge". The practical climbing of Mount Everest's peak based on this knowledge made be seen as "wisdom". In other words, wisdom refers to the practical application of a person's knowledge in those circumstances where good may result.
Thus wisdom complements and completes the series "data", "information" and "knowledge" of increasingly abstract concepts.
Data is often assumed to be the least abstract concept, information the next least, and knowledge the most abstract. This view, however, has also been argued to reverse the way in which data emerges from information, and information from knowledge. Beynon-Davies uses the concept of a sign to differentiate between data and information; data is a series of symbols, while information occurs when the symbols are used to refer to something.
Since the development of computing devices and machines, these devices can also collect data. In the s, computers are widely used in many fields to collect data and sort or process it, in disciplines ranging from marketinganalysis of social services usage by citizens to scientific research. These patterns in data are seen as information which can be used to enhance knowledge.
These patterns may be interpreted as " truth " though "truth" can be a subjective conceptand may be authorized as aesthetic and ethical criteria in some disciplines or cultures. Events that leave behind perceivable physical or virtual remains can be traced back through data.
Marks are no longer considered data once the link between the mark and observation is broken. An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity. A digital computer represents a piece of data as a sequence of symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet.
The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet, that is, an alphabet of two characters, typically denoted "0" and "1". More familiar representations, such as numbers or letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet. Some special forms of data are distinguished. A computer program is a collection of data, which can be interpreted as instructions.
Most computer languages make a distinction between programs and the other data on which programs operate, but in some languages, notably Lisp and similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable from other data. It is also useful to distinguish metadatathat is, a description of other data.
A similar yet earlier term for metadata is "ancillary data. Data collection[ edit ] Gathering data can be accomplished through a primary source the researcher is the first person to obtain the data or a secondary source the researcher obtains the data that has already been collected by other sources, such as data disseminated in a scientific journal.
Data analysis methodologies vary and include data triangulation and data percolation. The data are thereafter "percolated" using a series of pre-determined steps so as to extract the most relevant information.
In other fields[ edit ] Although data is also increasingly used in other fields, it has been suggested that the highly interpretive nature of them might be at odds with the ethos of data as "given".The SCDM Annual Conference is an unforgettable professional experience, offering you unrivalled opportunities to discover cutting-edge solutions and best practices in the Clinical Data Management .
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