Rail transport in India began in the early nineteenth century. Industrial railways[ edit ] The first proposals for railways in India were made in Madras in The railway was built by Sir Arthur Cotton and was mainly used for transporting granite stones for road-building work in Madras.
The relative success of Bahaism inside Iran where it constitutes the largest religious minority and in numerous other countries, where it claims the status of an independent religion, gives renewed significance to its Babi origins; indeed, Babi history and doctrine live on, albeit in a much revised form, in the literature and self-image of the modern Bahais.
For our purposes, Babism may be divided into two main periods: This second period also witnessed the outbreak Ghum 252 clashes between Babis and state in several parts of Iran and the physical defeat of the movement as a challenge to the religio-political system.
His failure to appoint a clear successor and the absence of an agreed system for the selection of one led, inevitably, to much fragmentation, out of which two major schools emerged: His arrest en route to his home town by agents of the governor of Shiraz considerably restricted his freedom of action and prevented even a late arrival in Iraq.
Although communications between him and his followers were never entirely severed, they were, at times, difficult, and it was, in any case, impossible to refer to him all questions for elucidation or arbitration.
The role of these and a few other individuals must be stressed. Controversy ensued within the Babi community. Others, however, began to follow her example, and Ghum 252 controversy soon spread beyond the confines of the Babi community proper.
This in itself, however, led to a growing attack on the sect from non-Shaikhi clergy confronted by the challenge of the Babi missionary enterprise. Until then, violence directed against the Babis had been limited and no one had died.
Now, large numbers of Babis were arrested, houses were broken into and looted, and several individuals were eventually put to death in retaliation for what was held to be a general Babi plot. A series of engagements soon ensued between the Babis and successive contingents of provincial and state troops until May,in the course of which all but a few of the defenders were killed.
Two features of this incident stand out: Babism now clearly posed a direct threat to the established political and religious order.
Our emphasis must at present remain on the outwardly religious character of Babism, while recognizing the value of religious motifs as a means of socio-political expression in a society such as Qajar Iran.
There was, moreover, a lack of certainty over the question of leadership.
Babism is of considerable interest for the light it sheds on a number of problems in the sociology of religion, notably that of charismatic breakthrough. We can observe a process whereby an initial development of traditional charismatic roles is rapidly intensified by a more radical breakthrough still expressed in terms of traditional motifs but involving a sharp move away from established religious modes, leading finally to a wholesale charismatic renewal in which the norms of the religious environment are replaced by a fresh set of doctrines and practices deriving their authority wholly from the charismatic authority of the prophet-figure.
Careful retrospection will show not only that Babism came close to upsetting the balance of Qajar political life but that it owed its ability to shake the foundations of society so forcefully and in such a short period less to a chance concatenation of events and more to its character as a vital response to deep-rooted expectations and needs of the Iranian people of the time.
The bibliography of Babism, both published and unpublished, is vast and uneven. The reader should refer to D. The most recent studies of early Babism are D.
MacEoin, From Shaykhism to Babism: Background and Development, Ph. Of early European studies the best are those of E. All subsequent Bahai accounts follow this closely e.
Details of the various upheavals, other than those in the general histories, may be found in M. Browne, JRAS 29,pp. A study of the uprisings from a Marxist point of view exists by Mikhail Ivanov: Babidskie vosstaniya v Irane, Leningrad, Sources are dealt with in D.
A Survey of the Sources forthcoming. Important contemporary documents are published in M. Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, Berger, From Sect to Church: Specific topics are dealt with in the following articles: Political and Cultural Change, Edinburgh,pp.
From totension between Babis and the rest of the population increased rapidly through several key incidents: The siege was finally ended by a ruse and the surviving Babis either executed or taken prisoner.
In the course of heavy fighting between the Babis and several contingents of state troops, from 1, to 1, Babis lost their lives and parts of the town were badly damaged. In addition to these outbreaks of large-scale violence, other incidents involving Babis occurred between and Later estimates of 20, and more found in some Bahai works do not, in fact, correspond to the more detailed figures given in Bahai historical sources.
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Saregama. Scudamore and Heuser () re- ported that residues in fumigated wheat/ flour, raisins, corn, sor- ghum, cottonseed meal, rice, and peanut meal were reduced to less than 1 mg/kg within a few days. Initial levels of inorganic bro- mide were positively related to concentration used, and disappear- ance rate was lower at low temperatures.
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