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History of Circumcision This index page links to material relating to the origin and history of male circumcision. Material is indexed in chronological order of publication. Introduction The practice of male genital mutilation is far older than recorded history.
Certainly, it is far older than the Biblical account of Abraham Genesis It seems to have originated in eastern Africa long before this time. One theory postulates that circumcision began as a way of "purifying" individuals and society by reducing sexuality and sexual pleasure. Human sexuality was seen as dirty or impure in some societies; hence cutting off the pleasure-producing parts was the obvious way to "purify" someone.
It is now known that the male foreskin, or prepuce, is the principal location of erogenous sensation in the human male see Anatomy. Removal of the prepuce substantially reduces erogenous sensation.
In this procedure the foreskin was stripped away from the glans, with which it is fused in the infant See Normal. In a painful procedure known today as a synechotomy, more foreskin was removed than before and the injury was correspondingly greater. With the introduction of peri'ah, the glans could not easily be recovered, and so no Jewish male would easily be able to appear as an uncircumcised Greek.
Although Judaism mandated circumcision, not all Jews wanted to be circumcised. Several methods of foreskin restoration were devised and practiced. This lessened the ugly appearance of the bare exposed circumcised penis.
The Christians took a strong stand against circumcision in the first century. Christians rejected circumcision at the Council at Jerusalem. Paul, the apostle to the gentiles, taught parents that they should not circumcise their children.
Paul warned Titus to beware of the "circumcision group. Moscucci reports that circumcision was imposed in an attempt to prevent masturbation. The American cultural practice of circumcision became nearly universal in South Korea after the Korean War of The incidence of neonatal circumcision in the United Kingdom declined sharply to a very low level after publication of this article after the procedure was delisted by the NHS.
America waited another 20 years before addressing the problem of non-therapeutic circumcision. Preston established that there is no therapeutic or prophylactic benefit to circumcision.
He also cited "undesirable psychologic, sexual, and medico-legal difficulties. The incidence of male neonatal circumcision in the U. The matter rested there untilwhen retrospective data collected from U. Army medical records by Thomas Wiswell, M. Careful examination of Wiswell's methods and data revealed many methodological flaws which rendered his conclusions questionable and unreliable.
This created new controversy about the value of neonatal circumcision. The Canadian Paediatric Society examined Wiswell's data in and found it to be "insufficiently compelling" to cause it to change its policy statement, which is against circumcision.
The mandate of NOCIRC is to provide accurate information regarding male circumcision, to promote children's rights, and to shed light on the medical mistakes of the past. The development of new information in the medical literature since caused the AAP to revisit the matter of circumcision in A new Task Force under the chair of Edgar J.
New data also conclusively established the role of the human papillomavirus HPV in the pathogenesis of genital cancers. This removed any lingering belief that the prepuce somehow caused cancer.
The Canadian Paediatric Society revisited the matter of neonatal circumcision in A new evidence-based policy statement was issued that strengthened its recommendation, stating that circumcision is medically unnecessary.
The ACP termed circumcision traumatic, a possible violation of human rights, and called for parents to be provided with full and complete information about circumcision before making a decision. Taylor and colleagues published a landmark article in that described original research into the anatomy and histology of the foreskin.
The research showed that the foreskin is highly innervated tissue with the characteristics of a sensory organ designed to provide erogenous sensation.
This action removes any suggestion that circumcision is beneficial or that it is recommended by medical authorities. It may also be an attempt to shift legal liability for the injury that is inherent in every child circumcision from the doctor to the parents.States History and Government.
Rating the Essay Question (1) Follow your school’s procedures for training raters. mandate for Palestine Kristallnacht occurs in Germany Hitler rises to power Palestine is partitioned Final Solution implemented Global History and Geography Scoring and) the.
Selfies are undoubtedly the most popular form of portrait photography today. However, portrait photography has a long and interesting history, full of new technology and iconic images. - Today, as in most of human history, the world is always in war, extinct wars like World War II, apparently succeeding wars like Iraq and the United States and more hard as the war of Israel and Palestine.
I think that history has shown that these two states can not and will not be able to sustain peace over any period of time. The. Continue Reading.
The Israel-Palestine Conflict Palestine and Israel Essay. Country Profile I. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY a. Official name of country: The State of Israel b. Geography of the State of Palestine refers to the geographic, climatic and other properties of the areas claimed by State of Palestine [citation needed Physiographic regions.
The terrain of the Gaza Strip is flat or rolling, with dunes near the coast. The highest point is Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda), at meters ( ft) above sea level. Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Essay Words | 11 Pages The conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Jews is a modern phenomenon, which began around the turn of the 20th century.