His mother was Agnes Keene. Both parents were Puritans. Locke was born on 29 Augustin a small thatched cottage by the church in WringtonSomerset, about 12 miles from Bristol. He was baptised the same day.
One of the pioneers in modern thinking was the English philosopher John Locke. He made great contributions in studies of politics, government, and psychology. John Locke was born in Wrington, Somerset, on Aug. The father, also named John Locke, was a devout, even-tempered man.
The boy was educated at Westminster School and Oxford and later became a tutor at the university. His friends urged him to enter the Church of England, but he decided that he was not fitted for the calling. He had long been interested in meteorology and the experimental sciences, especially chemistry.
He turned to medicine and became known as one of the most skilled practitioners of his day. In Locke became confidential secretary and personal physician to Anthony Ashley Cooper, later lord chancellor and the first earl of Shaftesbury.
Shaftesbury was indicted for high treason. He was acquitted, but Locke was suspected of disloyalty. In he left England for Holland and returned only after the revolution of Locke is remembered today largely as a political philosopher.
He preached the doctrine that men naturally possess certain large rights, the John locke writings being life, liberty, and property. Rulers, he said, derived their power only from the consent of the people.
He thought that government should be like a contract between the rulers and his subjects: The people give up certain of their rights in return for just rule, and the ruler should hold his power only so long as he uses it justly.
These ideas had a tremendous effect on all future political thinking. Locke was always very interested in psychology. Aboutfriends urged him to write a paper on the limitations of human judgment. He started to write a few paragraphs, but 20 years passed before he finished.
In this work he stressed the theory that the human mind starts as a tabula rasa smoothed tablet --that is, a waxed tablet ready to be used for writing. The mind has no inborn ideas, as most men of the time believed. Throughout life it forms its ideas only from impressions sense experiences that are made upon its surface.
In discussing education Locke urged the view that character formation is far more important than information and that learning should be pleasant.
During his later years he turned more and more to writing about religion. He died in Oates, Essex, on Oct. Locke It was John Locke, politically the most influential English philosopher, who further developed this doctrine.
His Two Treatises of Government were written to justify the Glorious Revolution ofand his Letter Concerning Toleration was written with a plain and easy urbanity, in contrast to the baroque eloquence of Hobbes. Locke was a scholar, physician, and man of affairs, well-experienced in politics and business.
As a philosopher he accepted strict limitations for mind, and his political philosophy is moderate and sensible, aimed at a balance among executive, judicial, and legislative powers, although with a bias toward the last.
His first Treatise was devoted to confuting the Royalist doctrine of patriarchal divine right by descent from Adam, an argument then taken very seriously and reflecting the idea of government as an aspect of a divinely ordained chain of being. If this order were broken, chaos would come about.
The argument was part of the contemporary conflict of the ancients and the moderns. Locke tried to provide an answer by defining a limited purpose for political power, which purpose he considered to be "a right of making laws with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties, for the regulating and preserving of property, and of employing the force of the community in execution of such laws, and in the defense of the commonwealth from foreign injury, and all this only for the public good.
It is thus a limited power, proceeding according to established laws and "directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. It was the threat of attack on the laws, property, and the Protestant religion that had roused resistance to James II.
Locke was thus no democrat in the modern sense and was much concerned to make the poor work harder. Like Hooker, he assumes a conservative social hierarchy with a relatively weak executive power and defends the propertied classes both against a ruler by divine right and against radicals.
In advocating toleration in religion he was more liberal: Within the possibilities of the time, Locke thus advocated a constitutional mixed government, limited by parliamentary control of the armed forces and of supply. Designed mainly to protect the rights of property, it was deprived of the right of arbitrary taxation or imprisonment without trial and was in theory responsible to all the people through the politically conscious minority who were thought to represent them.LOCKE, John ().
One of the pioneers in modern thinking was the English philosopher John Locke. He made great contributions in studies of . "John Locke". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "John Locke: Political Philosophy". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
John Locke Bibliography; Locke Studies An Annual Journal of Locke Research; Hewett, Caspar, John Locke's Theory of Knowledge, UK: The great debate. The Digital Locke Project, NL. Portraits of Locke, UK: NPG. John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.
Locke: The Political Writings. John Locke Edited, with Introduction, by David Wootton. - pp. His translations of Machiavelli (The Prince and Selected Political Writings), Thomas More, and Voltaire (Candide and Related Texts) are also published by Hackett Publishing Company.
Categories. New & Forthcoming. New and Forthcoming In his major work Two Treatises of Government Locke rejects the idea of the divine right of kings, supports the idea of natural rights (especially of property), and argues for a limited constitutional government which would protect individual rights.
See the Liberty Matters online discussion of John Locke on Property. The Influence of John Locke’s Works. Hans Aarsleff remarks that Locke “is the most influential philosopher of modern times”.
He notes that besides initiating the vigorous tradition known as British empiricism, Locke’s influence reached far beyond the limits of the traditional discipline of philosophy: “His influence in the history of thought, on the way we think about ourselves and.