As a means of analysis, there were certain limitations in that original model. Among those limitations was the model primarily applied more towards simple and static markets rather than complex and dynamic markets.
Rivalry In the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero. But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals.
The intensity of rivalry among firms varies across industries, and strategic analysts are interested in these differences. The Concentration Ratio CR is one such measure.
A high concentration ratio indicates that a high concentration of market share is held by the largest firms - the industry is concentrated. With only a few firms holding a large market share, the competitive landscape is less competitive closer to a monopoly.
A low concentration ratio indicates that the industry is characterized by many rivals, none of which has a significant market share. These fragmented markets are said to be competitive. The concentration ratio is not the only available measure; the trend is to define industries in terms that convey more information than distribution of market share.
If rivalry among firms in an industry is low, the industry is considered to be disciplined. Explicit collusion generally is illegal and not an option; in low-rivalry industries competitive moves must be constrained informally. However, a maverick firm seeking a competitive advantage can displace the otherwise disciplined market.
When a rival acts in a way that elicits a counter-response by other firms, rivalry intensifies. In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves: Changing prices - raising or lowering prices to gain a temporary advantage.
Improving product differentiation - improving features, implementing innovations in the manufacturing process and in the product itself.
Creatively using channels of distribution - using vertical integration or using a distribution channel that is novel to the industry. For example, with high-end jewelry stores reluctant to carry its watches, Timex moved into drugstores and other non-traditional outlets and cornered the low to mid-price watch market.
Sears set high quality standards and required suppliers to meet its demands for product specifications and price.
The intensity of rivalry is influenced by the following industry characteristics: A larger number of firms increases rivalry because more firms must compete for the same customers and resources. The rivalry intensifies if the firms have similar market share, leading to a struggle for market leadership.
Slow market growth causes firms to fight for market share. In a growing market, firms are able to improve revenues simply because of the expanding market. High fixed costs result in an economy of scale effect that increases rivalry.
When total costs are mostly fixed costs, the firm must produce near capacity to attain the lowest unit costs. Since the firm must sell this large quantity of product, high levels of production lead to a fight for market share and results in increased rivalry.
High storage costs or highly perishable products cause a producer to sell goods as soon as possible. If other producers are attempting to unload at the same time, competition for customers intensifies.
Low switching costs increases rivalry. When a customer can freely switch from one product to another there is a greater struggle to capture customers.
Low levels of product differentiation is associated with higher levels of rivalry.We will look at 1) introduction to the model, 2) Porter's five forces, 3) how to use the model, 4) model do's and dont's, 5) criticisms of the model, and 6) example - IKEA.
INTRODUCTION Through his model, Porter classifies five main. Porter's Five Forces Framework is a tool for analyzing competition of a business.
as well as pressure groups as the notional 6th force. This model was the result of work carried out as part of Groupe Bull's Knowledge Asset Management Organisation initiative.
Michael E. Porter’s Five Forces analysis model evaluates the industry environment through relevant external factors that define the competitive landscape. The analysis model provides information for strategic management to address the five forces, namely, competitive rivalry, the bargaining power of customers or buyers, the bargaining power.
Named for its creator Michael Porter, the Five Forces model helps businesses determine how well they can compete in the marketplace. We will look at 1) introduction to the model, 2) Porter’s five forces, 3) how to use the model, 4) model do’s and dont’s, 5) criticisms of the model, and 6) example – IKEA.
INTRODUCTION Through his model, Porter classifies five main competitive forces that affect any market and all industries. Under the six forces model Porter coined, these two products are complementary.
In the six forces of competition, an example of complementary industries is the tourism industry and the airline industry.