Championing Good Governance Welcome We welcome and thank you for taking the time to visit the website of the Office of the Auditor General. The Office of the Auditor General is an independent office. The Auditor General, in accordance with section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation with the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition and shall hold office in accordance with section of the Constitution. In serving the people of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the Auditor General must audit and report on the public accounts of Trinidad and Tobago and of all officers, courts and authorities of Trinidad and Tobago and is also empowered to carry out audits on financial statements of all state-owned or controlled enterprises.
It is conceptually similar in many ways to financial auditing by public accounting firms, quality assurance and banking compliance activities. While some of the audit technique underlying internal auditing is derived from management consulting and public accounting professions, the theory of internal auditing was conceived primarily by Lawrence Sawyeroften referred to as "the father of modern internal auditing";  and the current philosophy, theory and practice of modern internal auditing as defined by the International Professional Practices Framework IPPF of the Institute of Internal Auditors owes much to Sawyer's vision.
With the implementation in the United States of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ofthe profession's exposure and value was enhanced, as many internal auditors possessed the skills required to help companies meet the requirements of the law. However, the focus by internal audit departments of publicly traded companies on SOX related financial policy and procedures derailed progress made by the profession in the late 20th century toward Larry Sawyer's vision for internal audit.
Beginning in aboutthe IIA once again began advocating for the broader role internal auditing should play in the corporate arena, in keeping with the IPPF's philosophy. Professional internal auditors are mandated by the IIA standards to be independent of the business activities they audit.
This independence and objectivity are achieved through the organizational placement and reporting lines of the internal audit department.
Internal auditors of publicly traded companies in the United States are required to report functionally to the board of directors directly, or a sub-committee of the board of directors typically the audit committeeand not to management except for administrative purposes. The required organizational independence from management enables unrestricted evaluation of management activities and personnel and allows internal auditors to perform their role effectively.
Although internal auditors are part of company management and paid by the company, the primary customer of internal audit activity is the entity charged with oversight of management's activities.
This is typically the Audit Committeea sub-committee of the Board of Directors. Organizational independence is effectively achieved when the chief audit executive reports functionally to the board. Examples of functional reporting to the board involve the board: Role in internal control[ edit ] Internal auditing activity is primarily directed at evaluating internal control.
Under the COSO Framework, internal control is broadly defined as a process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management, and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of the following core objectives for which all businesses strive: Effectiveness and efficiency of operations.
Reliability of financial and management reporting. Compliance with laws and regulations. Safeguarding of Assets Management is responsible for internal control, which comprises five critical components: Managers establish policies, processes, and practices in these five components of management control to help the organization achieve the four specific objectives listed above.
Internal auditors perform audits to evaluate whether the five components of management control are present and operating effectively, and if not, provide recommendations for improvement. Role in risk management[ edit ] Internal auditing professional standards require the function to evaluate the effectiveness of the organization's Risk management activities.
Risk management is the process by which an organization identifies, analyzes, responds, gathers information about, and monitors strategic risks that could actually or potentially impact the organization's ability to achieve its mission and objectives. Under the COSO enterprise risk management ERM Framework, an organization's strategy, operations, reporting, and compliance objectives all have associated strategic business risks - the negative outcomes resulting from internal and external events that inhibit the organization's ability to achieve its objectives.
Sarbanes-Oxley regulations require extensive risk assessment of financial reporting processes. Corporate legal counsel often prepares comprehensive assessments of the current and potential litigation a company faces. Internal auditors may evaluate each of these activities, or focus on the overarching process used to manage risks entity-wide.
For example, internal auditors can advise management regarding the reporting of forward-looking operating measures to the Board, to help identify emerging risks; or internal auditors can evaluate and report on whether the board and other stakeholders can have reasonable assurance the organization's management team has implemented an effective enterprise risk management program.
In larger organizations, major strategic initiatives are implemented to achieve objectives and drive changes.
As a member of senior management, the Chief Audit Executive CAE may participate in status updates on these major initiatives. This places the CAE in the position to report on many of the major risks the organization faces to the Audit Committee, or ensure management's reporting is effective for that purpose.
The internal audit function may help the organization address its risk of fraud via a fraud risk assessment, using principles of fraud deterrence. Internal auditors may help companies establish and maintain Enterprise Risk Management processes. In these latter two areas, internal auditors typically are part of the risk assessment team in an advisory role.
Role in corporate governance[ edit ] Internal auditing activity as it relates to corporate governance has in the past been generally informal, accomplished primarily through participation in meetings and discussions with members of the Board of Directors.
The internal auditor is often considered one of the "four pillars" of corporate governance, the other pillars being the Board of Directors, management, and the external auditor.
This may include reporting critical management control issues, suggesting questions or topics for the Audit Committee's meeting agendas, and coordinating with the external auditor and management to ensure the Committee receives effective information.
In recent years, the IIA has advocated more formal evaluation of Corporate governance, particularly in the areas of board oversight of enterprise risk, corporate ethics, and fraud. Audit Project Selection or "Annual Audit Plan"[ edit ] Based on the risk assessment of the organization, internal auditors, management and oversight boards determine where to focus internal auditing efforts.
The Audit Plan is typically proposed by the CAE sometimes with several options or alternatives for the review and approval of the Audit Committee or the Board of Directors.
Internal Auditing activity is generally conducted as one or more discrete assignments. Establishing and communicating the scope and objectives of the Audit to appropriate members of management.The “role of external auditors is to express an opinion concerning whether the financial statement give a true and fair view of the company’s financial position and the final result in operations for the year ended” (Bakar.C.R, , pp 27).
Responsibilities and Functions of the Independent Auditor Responsibility to the Profession The independent auditor also has a responsibility to his profession. Welcome to eAuditNet. eAuditNet is web-based software that supports and improves efficiency in the auditing and accreditation systems of industry managed programs administered by the Performance Review Institute.
eAuditNet is developed and maintained by PRI for the benefit of industries where safety and quality are shared values, implementing a standardized approach to quality assurance. It is the work of these undisclosed subsidiary auditors, and the rigor of the principal auditor's oversight of their work, that provides financial market participants with assurance that the necessary controls are in place and working effectively.
Role of Auditors and the Auditor's Report. Topics: Auditing, Audit, Internal control Pages: 3 ( words) Published: August 11, Q The external auditor is the person appointed by the local government under the Local Government Act to undertake an audit of the accounts and financial report for each financial year.
The internal. With the adoption of a new auditing standard by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) in , the auditor’s role in certifying public companies will be expanding at a time when auditors are becoming busier and costlier than ever before.