Advanced Search Abstract During the past century, the microbiological safety of the US food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures.
Introduction Enzymes are produced by all living cells as catalysts for specific chemical reactions.
Not surprisingly enzymes are present in all foods at some time, and play an increasingly important role in food processing techniques. Enzymes, although not recognized as such, have played an essential part in some food processes, notably the making of cheese, leavened bread, wine and beer, for thousands of years Dewdney, Major Enzyme Applications in Food Industry In food industry, enzyme has been used to produce and to increase the quality and the diversity of food.
Some examples of products that use enzyme are cheese, yoghurt, bread syrup etc. Ancient traditional arts such as brewing, cheese making, meat tenderization with papaya leaves and condiment preparation e. Early food processes involving proteolysis were normally the inadvertent consequence of endogenous or microbial enzyme activity in the foodstuff.
Some major applications by types of enzymes are: Inthe total production of cheese was metric tons against a total demand of metric tons. The use of rennet, as an exogenous enzyme, in cheese manufacture is perhaps the largest single application of enzymes in food processing.
In recent years, proteinases have found additional applications in dairy technology, for example in acceleration of cheese ripening, modification of functional properties and preparation of dietic products IDF, Chymosin crystal structure www.
At present, microbial rennet is used for one-third of all the cheese produced worldwide. Rennin acts on the milk protein in two stages, by enzymatic and by nonenzymatic action, resulting in coagulation of milk.
In the enzymatic phase, the resultant milk becomes a gel due to the influence of calcium ions and the temperature used in the process Bhoopathy, Many microorganisms are known to produce rennet-like proteinases which can substitute the calf rennet. Microorganisms like Rhizomucor pusillus, R. Extensive research that has been carried out so far on rennet substitutes has been reviewed by several authors Green, M.
Different strains of species of Mucor are often used for the production of microbial rennets. During growth, lipase is secreted together with the protease.
Therefore, the lipase activity has to be destroyed by reducing the pH, before the preparation can be used as cheese rennet. Lactases Lactose, the sugar found in milk and whey, and its corresponding hydrolase, lactase or b-galactosidase, have been extensively researched during the past decade Mehaiya, This is because of the enzyme immobilization technique which has given new and interesting possibilities for the utilization of this sugar.
Because of intestinal enzyme insufficiency, some individuals, and even a population, show lactose intolerance and difficulty in consuming milk and dairy products.
Hence, low-lactose or lactose-free food aid programme is essential for lactose-intolerant people to prevent severe tissue dehydration, diarrhoea, and, at times, even death. Another advantage of lactase-treated milk is the increased sweetness of the resultant milk, thereby avoiding the requirement for addition of sugars in the manufacture of flavored milk drinks.
Manufacturers of ice cream, yoghurt and frozen desserts use lactase to improve scoop and creaminess, sweetness, and digestibility, and to reduce sandiness due to crystallization of lactose in concentrated preparations.
Cheese manufactured from hydrolyzed milk ripens more quickly than the cheese manufactured from normal milk. Technologically, lactose crystallizes easily which sets limits to certain processes in the dairy industry, and the use of lactase to overcome this problem has not reached its fullest potential because of the associated high costs.
Moreover, the main problem associated with discharging large quantities of cheese whey is that it pollutes the environment.
But, the discharged whey could be exploited as an alternate cheap source of lactose for the production of lactic acid by fermentation. The whey permeate, which is a by-product in the manufacture of whey protein concentrates, by ultrafiltration could be fermented efficiently by Lactobacillus bulgaricus Mehaiya, Picture 3.
Lactase crystal structure Pitman, S. Some of these sources are used for commercial enzyme preparations. Lactase preparations from A. The most investigated E.
The properties of the enzyme depend on its source. Temperature and pH optima differ from source to source and with the type of particular commercial preparation. Immobilization of the enzymes, method of immobilization, and type of carrier can also influence these optima values. In general, fungal lactase have pH optima in the acidic range 2.
The variation in pH optima of lactases makes them suitable for specific applications, for example fungal lactases are used for acid whey hydrolysis, while yeast and bacterial lactases are suitable for milk pH 6. The enzyme from A.The food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India and ranks fifth in terms of production, consumption and exports.
As per the latest data available, food processing sector is expected to reach USD billion in FY Africa’s food processing industry holds huge potential for growth: by , it is anticipated that role in providing for the region’s food needs. Solutions for African Food Enterprises (SAFE) was a public-private partnership between TechnoServe.
Industry” provides a perspective on the role and impact of Food Processing in providing high quality, safe foods for end-consumption, while being a growth catalyst in our economy through employment. Red-meat production is the most labor-intensive food-processing operation.
As the food manufacturing industry increases the automation of production tasks, a growing number of workers are operating machines.
so packaging and transportation employees play a vital role in the industry. The agro food processing industry is one of the largest in India, employs around 18% of the country’s industrial work force and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth (Merchant, ).
84 Chapter No. Role and Importance of Food-Processing industries. Introduction. Definition of Food Processing. Fruits and Vegetable in India. Need of Food Processing Industry. Processed Food. Highly processed foods. Organic Food.
Innovative Food Processing Technology. Advances in Food Science and Technology. Objectives of food processing.