An Orange Order march in Glasgow Sectarianism became a serious problem in the twentieth century. In the interwar period religious and ethnic tensions between Protestants and Catholics were exacerbated by economic depression. Tensions were heightened by the leaders of the Church of Scotland who orchestrated a racist campaign against the Catholic Irish in Scotland. This focused on the threat to the "Scottish race" based on spurious statistics that continued to have influence despite being discredited by official figures in the early s.
An independent website about religions in today's world Research: Why did such an intriguing development occur? Did it mean that some newly apparent groups were presenting specific challenges and features requiring urgent state intervention although some of the groups monitored by such agencies or centres had been active for decades?
Did the nearly simultaneous creation of these centres imply similar perceptions of the issue of cults across European states, even though most countries did not establish such centres, despite the presence of the targeted groups on their territories?
This phenomenon deserves attention, in order to understand the dynamics leading to concerns about some groups, especially in an historical context where state neutrality in religious matters has become increasingly emphasized.
This article will focus on Western Europe. Developments that are worth monitoring have also occurred in post-communist European countries, but this would require further research.
North America will also be omitted, except in the section that discusses the roots of the phenomenon, as well as when dealing with North American influences in Europe. Finally, it will not be possible to pay attention to developments in countries such as Israel, China and Japan. Regarding Western Europe, the article will not attempt to offer a detailed country-by-country approach, but will nevertheless provide an overview, while simultaneously trying to identify trends and discernible periods Secularization a feature of modern european which the phenomenon that forms the subject matter of this article can be broadly divided.
It will deal only with the attitudes of European states, but another important issue worth considering that is not discussed in this article would be cult-related decisions made by European courts at various levels.
In some cases, such work included valuable documentary material as well as criticism of the beliefs of these groups. In France, a member of the Dominican Order, Fr. The focus of such books of the s was mostly on Christian non-conformity. At that time, democratic states paid little attention to sects, cults and new religious movements NRMs ; more precisely, while occasionally a movement became controversial, that specific movement was then targeted, and not a range of unrelated movements.
For instance, there were raids on the Church of Scientology  or associated groups by the US Food and Drug Administration in and Scientology is a delusional belief system, based on fiction and fallacies and propagated by falsehood and deception.
While making an appeal to the public as a worthy system whereby ability, intelligence and personality may be improved, it employs techniques which further its real purpose of securing domination over and mental enslavement of its adherents.
It involves the administration by persons without any training in medicine or psychology of quasi-psychological treatment, which is harmful medically, morally and socially.
Inan inquiry was conducted in New Zealand,  while inquiries were launched in the same year in South Africa  and the United Kingdom. The s were marked by several important changes. This was a time of turbulence, especially among the younger generation, reflected in radical political activism, the flourishing of counter-culture and manifestations such as the hippie movement, and a turning towards the East after disillusionment with what was seen as a profit-oriented, materialistic West.
New movements flourished that were quite different from the classical model of Christian sects. Gurus from India became fashionable. The Beatles visited Maharishi Mahesh Yogibut his — externally somewhat Westernized — Transcendental Meditation was only one among many other neo-Hindu teachings.
New movements did not only come from India: Some movements from Japan were spreading too, while the Jesus Revolution offered to hippies a radical understanding of the Christian faith: It was a time of religious quests, but also of widespread aspirations to establish ideal communities, with a number of these groups actually leading communitarian lives.
Moreover — and here we come to the real starting point of our story — many of the people who joined such groups did not at all match the typical profile of converts to fringe religious groups. A number had been receiving higher education, sometimes at the best colleges and universities, and had suddenly given up their studies to sit at the feet of Hindu gurus or to do fundraising on behalf of a Korean messiah.
New devotees also included a number of activists who had previously been involved in social protests and student unrest: To say the least, many parents were not particularly pleased to watch their children undergo such radical reorientations, even more so because many of the converts did not only leave behind university, studies and hopes for a bright middle-class future, but even cut or drastically reduced links to their families, since they had more important and urgent tasks to fulfil e.
To make matters worse, some of the new breed of spiritual leaders did not always seem to outsiders to be the kind of people one should trust.
How could such strange things happen, the parents wondered? First in North America, and soon after in Europe, relatives of converts to some high-demand groups felt that sinister forces were at work: In the minds of concerned relatives, there was little doubt: Something clearly had to be done, and very soon relatives discovered other people reporting similar experiences.
Quite naturally, they started cooperating. Very soon, however, parents who were attempting to make sense of what was happening to their sons or daughters in various groups became aware that, despite differences in the beliefs and outlook of these groups, the issues these parents were facing were quite similar: Over time, however, the similarities they perceived in the stories they were told by exasperated parents became disturbing and difficult to ignore.Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology.
Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT . Some theorists argue that the secularization of modern civilization partly results from our inability to adapt broad ethical and spiritual needs of mankind to the increasingly fast advance of the physical sciences.
European sociology, influenced by anthropology. The declining hold of the Church and its doctrines on European society represents a major shift in Western life and thought. Owen Chadwick's acclaimed lectures on the secularisation of the European mind trace this movement in the nineteenth century, identifying and exploring both the social and the intellectual aspects of this momentous change.
Assess the view that secularisation has been a feature of modern European societies.
Proposed by Wilson, Secularisation is where religion loses significance. It has been argued that this has happened recently largely in Europe, where many of the white population in particular, move away from.
Secularism, as defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is the "indifference to, or rejection or exclusion of, religion and religious considerations." As a philosophy, secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion. In political terms, secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons.
Secularization, a Feature of Modern European Societies Essay Assess the view that secularisation has been a feature only of modern European societies (33 marks) Secularisation is the continuous decline of religion practice, beliefs and institutions.