Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence often referred also as Emotional Intelligence Quotient is the ability of an individual to perceive, assess and manage emotions of his own self and of other people. Emotional Intelligence has four main components, namely, the ability to:
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient IQyears of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists.
Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd versioneducational attainment, and income of the participants.
For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4,to Feb 28,of the neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income.
We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment.
Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood.
Introduction Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits for child survival through reduction of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Two randomised trials 3,4 have also investigated this topic. In Denmark, Mortensen and colleagues 5 noted that breastfeeding duration was positively associated with performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale mean age 27 yearswhile Richards and colleagues 6 reported a positive association with performance in the National Adult Reading Test in participants aged 53 years in the British cohort.
In the Hertfordshire cohort, participants were classified as being bottle-fed, breastfed, or mixed fed; the breastfed group had increased mean scores in the AH4 IQ test, but the association disappeared after the investigators controlled for confounding variables.
In particular, longer durations for mothers with high socioeconomic position than for those with low position might positively confound, and thus overestimate, the benefit of breastfeeding.
Comparison of observational studies with different confounding structures has been used to improve causal inference.
Because breastfeeding was positively associated with family income in ALSPAC but not in Pelotas, the positive association in Brazil was probably not caused by residual confounding.
Whether or not apparently small IQ gains affect real life achievement—eg, educational attainment—is debatable. In New Zealand, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with performance in secondary school tests in students aged 18 years.
Because of the association between intelligence and educational attainment, the notion that breastfeeding can also increase individual income, and thus contribute to economic productivity, has been postulated. We aimed to assess the associations between infant feeding and IQ, educational attainment, and income in participants aged 30 years in a large population-based birth cohort, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists.
Methods Participants Infive maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and all births were identified from labour ward records; neonates whose families lived in the urban area of the city were examined and their mothers were interviewed soon after delivery.
Between June 4,and Feb 28,cohort members were invited to visit a research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The Ethical Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Pelotas approved the study, and we obtained written informed consent from all participants.
Procedures Information about duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods was obtained inwhen the average age of participants was 19 months.Background: The relationship between a mother and child is extremely important, especially with regard to breastfeeding habits.
These affect the lives of children and mothers at an early stage and have become a source of concern for health workers and non-professionals alike. Breastfeeding is widely recognized as the optimal way to feed a baby.
Its positive impacts can be seen not only on the infant, but also on the mother, the parents and, ultimately, the health-care system. Lancet breastfeeding series: Confirms the benefits of breastfeeding for children and mothers, regardless of whether they live in high- or low-income nations, and that countries are not doing enough to support breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Early Cognitive Development. 13 These authors called for future research to separate the potential nutritional value of breastfeeding from its relationship with the quality of the child-rearing environment.
In the past decade, studies have attempted to clarify the association between breastfeeding and the. The Southern Poverty Law Center lists the Pioneer Fund as a hate group, citing the fund's history, its funding of race and intelligence research, and its connections with racist individuals.
Other researchers have criticized the Pioneer Fund for promoting scientific racism, eugenics and white supremacy. Intelligence and Its Role in Protecting Against Terrorism Author Biography Richard Hughbank is a senior trainer with HALO Corporation and a Military Police officer in the U.S.
Army with over twenty-one years experience.