The following example shows what NOT to do for a title page: More is not better.
Lists, Outlines, Notecards, etc. Before starting to write the paper, take the time to think about and develop a list of points to be made in the paper. As you progress, use whichever strategy works for you to begin to order and to organize those points and ideas into sections. Balanced Review of the Primary Research Literature: Do an in-depth, balanced review of the primary research literature relevant to your study questions prior to designing and carrying out the experiments.
This review will help you learn what is known about the topic you are investigating and may let you avoid unnecessarily repeating work done by others. This literature will form the basis of your Introduction and Discussion. Training in on-line searches is available from the Reference Librarians.
Do your search early enough to take advantage of the Interlibrary Loan System if need be. Once your hypothesis has been refined for testing, you will draft the Introduction to your paper. Design and Conduct the Experiment: Keep careful notes on procedures used during the experiment.
You should write the Materials and Methods section upon completion of the experiment. Top of page D Analyze and Interpret the Results: Once the data are collected, you must analyze and interpret the results.
Analysis will include data summaries e. Most scientists lay out their Tables and Figures upon completion of the data analysis before writing the Results section.
Write the Table and Figure legends. It is good practice to note the one or two key results that each Table or Figure conveys and use this information as a basis for writing the Results section.
Sequence and number the Tables and Figures in the order which best enables the reader to reach your conclusions. Write the Results Section: Remember that the Results section has both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures.
Use the text component to guide the reader through your key resultsi. Each Table and Figure must be referenced in the text portion of the results, and you must tell the reader what the key result s is that each Table or Figure conveys. Interpretation of your results includes discussing how your results modify and fit in with what we previously understood about the problem.
Review the literature again at this time. After completing the experiments you will have much greater insight into the subject, and by going through some of the literature again, information that seemed trivial before, or was overlooked, may tie something together and therefore prove very important to your own interpretation.
Be sure to cite the works that you refer to. Top of page G. Write the Abstract and Title: The Abstract is always the last section written because it is a concise summary of the entire paper and should include a clear statement of your aims, a brief description of the methods, the key findings, and your interpretation of the key results.Introduction to Primary Research: Observations, Surveys, and Interviews by Dana Lynn Driscoll This essay is a chapter in Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2, a peer-reviewed open textbook series for the writing classroom.
Research like a pro–and write a winning paper! Do research papers make you nervous? Don’t panic! This taskisn’t as overwhelming as it may seem––and conductinggood research is .
Here’s the abstract for a paper (that I haven’t written) on how to write an abstract: How to Write an Abstract. The first sentence of an abstract should clearly introduce the topic of the paper so that readers can relate it to other work they are familiar with. Robert S. Day, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 4th edition, Oryx Press, Phoenix, Earlier editions also good.
A bit more advanced, intended for those writing papers for publication. Get Organized: Lists, Outlines, Notecards, caninariojana.com starting to write the paper, take the time to think about and develop a list of points to be made in the paper.
The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out. As in other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time.